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CAFFEINIC ACID , not to be confused with caffeine, exerts a stimulating effect upon the heart and central nervous system.

CALMATIVE - a substance that has a soothing or sedative effect.

CALORIE , by definition, is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius. The Calorie is the standard unit for measuring food energy; it is a unit measure for heat and is not a nutrient. The Calorie used in nutrition is the kilocalorie (kcal) or large calorie (Cal).

Nutrition Notebook uses Calorie and calorie both to mean kilocalorie.

The caloric value of different food elements are: one gram of protein equals four calories, one gram of fat equals nine calories, and one gram of carbohydrate equals four calories. Nearly 80% of all food intake is used solely to maintain a body temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit.

CANDIDA is one of the many different species of yeast. Each has distinct characteristics. Candida thrives in warm-blooded animals, and brewer’s yeast does not.

Candida has a voracious appetite and multiples rapidly. It also has the ability to change shape - to turn into a hard-edged arrow. Once transformed, it aggressively plunges far into the cells in mucous membranes, pushing the cells’ own nuclei to one side as it enters.

CARBOHYDRATES , one of the three classes of nutrients, are a group of chemical substances including sugars, glycogen, starches, dextrins, and cellulose. They contain only carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Usually the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1. Carbohydrates can be classified as either a simple carbohydrate or a complex carbohydrate.

Digested carbohydrate enters the circulatory system in the form of monosaccharides, primarily glucose. Lesser amounts of fructose and galactose are also absorbed, but these are eventually converted to glucose in the liver. Before they can be absorbed into the bloodstream, polysaccharides and disaccharides must be broken down into monosaccharides by specific enzymes during the digestive process.

CARCINOMA - A carcinoma is a malignant growth consisting of epithelial cells which tend to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastasis.

CARDIOLOGIST: Circulation manager

CARMINATIVE - an agent which assists in expelling gas from the intestines.

CARTILAGE is found in various parts of the body. It is composed of chondrocytes, mucopolysaccharides, and fiber.

Hyaline cartilage is the most common cartilage in the body. It contains collagen fibers arranged in a loose network. This smooth cartilage is found on the joint surfaces of bones. Hyaline cartilage serves as a precursor to bone in the embryo. Fibrocartilage is the least common type of cartilage. It is composed of dense bundles of collagen and elastic fibers. Fibrocartilage cushions bone-to-bone junctions, for example, the vertebral discs.

Elastic cartilage is composed of dense bundles of collagen and elastic fibers. The arrangement of the fibers is similar to that of a tendon giving the cartilage extreme flexibility. Elastic cartilage is found in structures such as the nose and outer ear.

CASCARA SAGRADA (Rhamnus Purshiana), Family: Anacardiaceae - Cascara sagrada is a small deciduous tree that grows from 15-20 feet in height. It has pubescent stems covered with reddish-brown bark and often gray lichen. The tree bears dark green elliptic to oblong-ovate leaves with prominent veins and toothed margins. The leaves are rounded at the base and have somewhat hairy undersides. Short-stemmed clusters of small, greenish-white flowers grow from the upper leaf axils; they eventually produce black, pea-sized drupes that are poisonous.

Common Names : Bearberry, Bearwood, California buckthorn, Chittem bark, Christ’s thorn, Holy bark,

Persian bark, Sacred bark, Shittimwood

Habitat : found in Europe and western Asia, and in North America, from northern Idaho to the Pacific coast; mountainous areas.

Medicinal parts : bark- dried, collected at least a year before use.

For more information see the HERBS section of the Nutrition Notebook

CATABOLISM is the breaking down phase of metabolism, the opposite of anabolism. Catabolism includes all the processes in which complex substances are progressively broken down into simpler ones. Both anabolism and catabolism usually involve the release of energy, and together constitute metabolism.

CATHARTIC - an agent which produces active bowel movements, often accompanying cramps; it is usually combined with an antispasmodic.

CATION - a cation is the element of an electrolyte in electrochemical decomposition appearing as a positive ion at the negative pole or cathode.

CELERY is a biennial plant indigenous to southern Europe, Asia, and Africa. It is also found in North and South America. Celery grows in damp places and resembles domestic celery, except that it has a less agreeable taste and is smaller in size. In its second year the plant produces an angular furrowed stem reaching three feet in height. It bears dark green leaves that are opposite, shiny, and primate, having wedge-shaped, incised, toothed leaflets. From July to November, white to gray-white flowers appear in paniculate compound umbels. The fruits are dark brown, elliptic-ovate seeds. The medicinal parts are the roots, leaves and seeds.

Other common names: Garden Celery, Smallage, Wild Celery

For more information see the HERBS section of the Nutrition Notebook

CELIAC DISEASE (Sprue) or Catarrhal Dysentery (tropical or nontropical) is an intestinal malabsorption syndrome characterized by diarrhea, electrolyte depletion, malnutrition, bleeding tendency, and abnormally low blood calcium. Persons with celiac disease are unable to properly absorb gluten. The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet, an example of which is the Gluten Restricted Diet, for an indefinite period. Antibiotics and folic acid may help keep the disease in remission.

CELLULOSE is a major polysaccharide of high molecular weight. It is a straight chain polymer which is a major structural component of cell walls. It is very abundant in nature, forming the skeleton of most plant structures and plant cells. Cellulose is not water-soluble but holds water and thereby produces bulk. It is not digested by pancreatic or small bowel enzymes.

CEMETERY: A home for the Terminally Still.

CHAMOMILE is an annual herb found in southern Europe and northern Asia. It grows along roadsides and fields. The plant produces a round, furrowed, and branched stem which grows one to two feet in height. The leaves are pale green, incised, and sessile, with thread-shaped leaflets. The flower heads consists of yellow disk flowers and white petal-shaped ray flowers that are bent downward to make the disk flowers more prominent. The medicinal part is the flower.

For more information see the HERBS section of the Nutrition Notebook

CHEILOSIS refers to angular stomatitis seen in riboflavin deficiency and other vitamin B-complex deficiencies. It begins with a small fissure, without much inflammation, and accumulation of dried serum. It may eventuate in deep fissures. Characteristics of cheilosis are swollen lips which crack easily and cracks which develop at the corners of the mouth.

CHEMOSIS is edema in the ocular conjunctiva around the cornea.

CHLOASMA - Irregular brown or black spots on the skin, often on the face, that may occur during pregnancy, and in disorders of or functional changes in the uterus and ovaries.

CHLOROPHYLL is the major light-absorbing pigment in green plants. It is located within the membrane of the chloroplasts, which are small, green organelles found in plant cells. Chlorophyll is a large molecule composed of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and magnesium coordinated with four central nitrogen atoms. It functions to initiate photosynthesis, a complex biochemical pathway in which solar energy is used to convert water and carbon dioxide to glucose and other carbohydrates.

CHOLAGOGUE - a substance which increases the flow of bile to the intestines.

CHOLECALCIFEROL is part of the vitamin D Complex, identified as vitamin D-3.

CHOLESTATIC - The checking or failure of bile flow.

CHOLERETIC - a substance that stimulates the production of bile.

CHOLESTEROL - an important basic material for making hormones, for synthesizing vitamin D, and for building cell membranes. Some of the hormones made by your body from cholesterol have crucial roles in body chemistry. Almost 10% of the dry weight of the brain tissue is cholesterol. It is so essential to nutrition that the liver and brain synthesize about 1.5 grams a day to insure you get enough. If you overindulge in cholesterol rich foods such as eggs, synthesis in the liver shuts down. However, the brain must have this material at all times, thus cholesterol synthesis in the brain goes on continuously. The link between dietary cholesterol and heart disease is fairly weak, while the real connection with heart disease comes from saturated fats. Since dietary cholesterol in animal foods usually exists with cholesterol, cholesterol gets blamed for things it does not cause. In the transport of cholesterol from the liver to the arteries it is not the cholesterol that forms the thick, clogging plaque deposits, but the saturated fats you eat.

CHOREA - Nervous disorders of infectious or organic origin marked by spasmodic movements of the limbs and facial muscles, and lack of coordination. It is also called Saint Vitus' dance.

CIRRHOSIS is a chronic and irreversible condition in which liver cells are progressively destroyed. As the cells undergo necrosis, the liver attempts to regenerate itself. The necrotic cells are replaced by new ones, but also by extensive connective tissue. Liver structure is altered so much that the flow of lymph and blood through this organ is much less efficient; the liver eventually stops functioning.

Cirrhosis affects twice as many males as females.

The primary treatment is to remove the underlying cause. This can involved eating a well balanced diet and abstinence from ethyl alcohol. Rest, frequent and small meals, and prevention of infection aid in recovery.

COBALT is a grey, hard metallic element. It is an essential trace element and a vital part of the vitamin B-12 molecule. Cobalt is complexed to form the reactive site of vitamin B-12. Cobalt stimulates red blood cell production but use as a therapeutic agent is frequently not effective and may be toxic. Other forms of cobalt exist, i.e. cobalt 60 which emits beta particles and energetic gamma rays and is used in radiation therapy and diagnosis, in place of radium and X-rays.

COLLAGEN is composed of complex protein fibers which strongly resist being pulled apart. Collagen, which comprises over half the protein of the mammal, can be found in bones, ligaments, and cartilage. It is high in glycine, alanine, proline and hydroproline.

COMFREY is a perennial plant native to most of North America, Europe, and western Siberia. It is found in moist, watery places. The rootstock is fleshy, branched, and white internally. The plant produces an angular hairy stem which grows up to three feet in height, branching only near the top. It bears large, oblong, lanceolate leaves, which are green, rough, and covered with short hairs. Basal leaves are also present, usually lying along the ground. Whitish, pale purple flowers grow in racemes from the upper leaf axils, blooming from May to August. The fruit consists of four small nuts located at the bottom of the calyx.

Other common names for this plant are: Blackwort, Bruisewort, Gum Plant, Knitback, Slippery Root, Wallwart,

Healing Herb, Salsify

For more information see the HERBS section of the Nutrition Notebook.

COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES consist of three or more monosaccharides bonded together; these are also known as polysaccharides. Complex carbohydrates are found in foods of plant origin. An example of a complex carbohydrate is the starch found in grains.

Because their conversion to monosaccharides requires many consecutive enzymatic reactions, complex carbohydrates provide energy more slowly and evenly than simple carbohydrates while avoiding large fluctuations in blood sugar levels. Complex carbohydrates have other benefits as well; many natural sources of complex carbohydrates contain significant amounts of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and other nutrients.

CONDOM: Planned parent hood.

CONGENITAL is that which is present at birth.

CONJUNCTIVITIS refers to the inflammation of the conjunctiva, the delicate membrane that lines the eyelid.

CORYZA is profuse nasal mucous membrane discharge.

COUMARIN is a white, crystalline substance, C9H6O2, with the odor of vanilla.

COUMESTROL is a coumarin found in alfalfa and other plants. Coumestrol has estrogenic properties.

CROUP is a childhood disease characterized by a resonant barking cough, suffocative and difficult breathing, laryngeal spasm, and sometimes by the formation of a membrane.

CUSHING'S SYNDROME results from hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, within which there is excessive production of glucocorticoids. It may be caused by hyperfunction of anterior pituitary or tumor of the adrenal gland. The syndrome is characterized by symptoms related to protein loss, and adiposity, fatigue, and weakness.

CYMENE is a monoterpene hydrocarbon found in cinnamon and nutmeg. High levels or chronic exposure to cymene can be toxic.

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