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Medical Dictionary


MALAISE is a symptom, often indicative of an infection, characterized by discomfort, uneasiness, or indisposition.

MALIC ACID (malate) is an acid found in apples and various other fruits. Malate is involved in many areas of the body. It is one of the compounds produced in the citric acid cycle as an integral part of the cycle. Malate is also involved in the transport of compounds through membranes in the cell.

MALONIC ACID (malonate) is an acid found in aconite and other plants. Malonic acid is a strong irritant: caution should be taken in handling it. Malonic acid is an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, which binds to the enzyme because it is similar in structure to succinate. Once bound, no reaction occurs because malonate cannot be acted upon by succinate dehydrogenase. Malonic acid is used in the production of barbiturates.

MALTOL is a volatile oil found in roasted barley and other plants. Maltol has an odor like that of caramel, and is used as a flavoring agent in breads and cakes, to achieve a freshly baked odor.

MALTOSE - is a disaccharide found in barley seeds. Maltose is broken down into two glucose molecules in the intestines by the enzyme maltase. Failure to break down maltose in the intestine will lead to diarrhea, excessive gases, and other symptoms. These conditions are due to the lack of production of enzymes and to the presence of bacteria, which use these sugars as an energy source. The bacteria decompose these disaccharides into glucose, with the subsequent production of organic acids, gases, and high acidity in the lower intestine. Maltose is used as a nutrient, a sweetener, and in prepared bee food, among other products.

MANNIC DEPRESSIVE: One whose life is easy glum, easy glow.

MANNOSE is a sugar found in red clover tops, caraway and other plants. Mannose is one of the most important sugars in the body. It is an important part of globulins, and is found frequently in the polysaccharides of glycoproteins.

MARRUBENOL is a diterpene alcohol found in horehound.

MARRUBIIN is a diterpene lactone found in white horehound and other plants. Marrubiin promotes secretion of mucus from the mucous membranes of the air passages, and facilitates its expulsion. Marrubiin has several pharmacological effects and when changed in a specific way shows choleretic properties. Marrubiin is used in some cold and cough medications as an expectorant.

MARRUBIOL is a diterpene alcohol found in horehound.

MATERNITY WARD: An heirport.

MEDICAGOL is a coumarin derivative and may be isolated from alfalfa that have viral leaf spot infections among other plants. Medicagol in some experiments have shown antifungal activity.

MELASMA - A dark pigmentation of the skin.

MEMBRANE : The part of your brain you remember with.

MENTAL BLOCK: A street on which several psychiatrists live.

METABOLISM refers to the sum of all physical and chemical reactions, including catabolism and anabolism, which occur within an organism. More simply, it might be considered the physical and chemical processes of converting protein, fats, carbohydrates and water into living flesh, energy, and waste products.

METASTASIS is the shifting of a disease, or its local manifestations from one part of the body to another. Spread is by the lymph system or bloodstream.

MICELLE is one of the ultamicroscopic units of protoplasm.

MITOCHONDRIA are the rod-shape organelles found in the cytoplasm of cells. They are the source of energy in the cell and are involved in protein synthesis and lipid metabolism.

MORPHINE is an alkaloid which can be isolated from opium. It causes central nervous system excitation followed by depression. It also depresses respiration, and causes nausea and vomiting in certain individuals. Morphine is used to relieve pain without loss of consciousness and as an antidiuretic. Morphine, when abused will lead to physical addiction.

MUCILAGE is a preparation made from vegetables. It is commonly used to hold pharmaceutical agents in suspension and also used as a soothing agent.

MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES are polysaccharides that form bonds with water. They contain hexosamines and sometimes protein. It is a thick gelatinous material found in many places in the body.

MYALGIA refers to pain located in muscular tissue.

MYDRIATIC - any drug that dilates the pupil.

MYELIN SHEATHS are sheaths surrounding the axon of some (myelinated) nerve cells, consisting of concentric layers of myelin, a white fluid fatty substance formed in the peripheral nervous system by the plasma membrane of Schwann cells, and in the central nervous system by oligodendrocytes. It is interrupted at intervals along the length of the axon by gaps known as nodes of Ranvier. Myelin is an electrical insulator that serves to speed the conduction of nerve impulses.

MYOCARDIAL refers to that which concerns the middle layer of the heart which are composed of cardiac muscle.

MYRISTIC ACID is a fatty acid found in animal and vegetable fats.

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