SALICYLATES are a class of drugs or the precursor of
a group of drugs. Aspirin and other drugs are derivatives of salicylates.
Salicylates have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Its
mechanism of action is unknown, although it is known to cause vasodilation and
inhibit the release of prostaglandins.
SALICYLIC ACID is a white crystalline acid derived
from phenol. It is used in making aspirin, as a preservative and flavoring
agent, and in external treatment of certain skin conditions. Salicylic acid
occurs in the form of esters in wintergreen and birch; it has
anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiseptic, and antirheumatic properties.
Externally, it can destroy tissue at the site of application, and is used on
moles and warts. Large doses are toxic; ingestion of 10 milliliters have
resulted in death in children.
SAPONINS , found in licorice root and sarsaparilla,
are detergent-like, soapy glycosides that work as cleansing agents in the
circulatory system, breaking up calcification around the joints, and
eliminating uric acid through the activation of the kidneys and bladder.
Saponins reduce elevated serum cholesterol levels in the blood. They destroy
red blood cells by hemolysis and are toxic, especially to cold-blooded animals.
Saponins yield sapogenins upon hydrolysis.
SARSAPARILLA The tuberous rootstock produces a woody
angular stem that trails along the ground, reaching 4 to 12 inches in length.
The stems have rigid thorns and bear ovate-oblong, alternate, glossy, dark
green leaves. The flowers are green-white and grow in petiolate umbels
containing 10 to 20 blossoms. It is found throughout the tropical regions of
the Americas. The medicinal part is the rootstock - fresh or dried, collected
in the autumn.
Other common names: Honduras sarsaparilla, Red
sarsaparilla, Spanish sarsaparilla.
For more information see the HERBS section of the Nutrition
SAW PALMETTO (Serenoa serrulata) -
Description: has a large underground trunk that produces
palmate, green, white-coated leaves. The fruit is a dark purple-to-black berry
which grows in clusters and ripens from October to December.
Common names: dwarf palmetto, fan palm, sabal.
Habitat:: found in swampy areas and along the Atlantic
coast of the United States.
Medicinal parts: berries - ripe, partially-dried.
For more information see the HERBS section of the Nutrition
SCOPOLETIN is a compound in anise, coriander,
tarragon, passion flower, and spice-dill seed. It is reported to be an uterine
SEDATIVE - Sedatives commonly function to induce
reversible depression of the central nervous system. Examples of this class are
phenobarbital, secobarbital sodium, and pentobarbital.
SEROUS membranes (tunica serosa) refers to membranes
inside the body which secrete serum as a lubricant. The serous membranes
consist of mesothelium lying upon connective tissue layer; they line the
external walls of the body cavities and reflect over the surfaces of protruding
SERUM is the clear portion of any animal liquid
separated from its more solid elements; especially the clear liquid (blood
serum) which separates in the clotting of blood from the clot and the
SESQUITERPENE HYDROCARBONS are terpenes found in
plants. They are reported to have bacteriostatic properties.
SESQUITERPENE LACTONES are found in many vegetables,
spices, and other plants. They are reported to have cytotoxic and/or
SEX: The most fun you can have without laughing.
SHIN: A device for finding furniture in the dark.
SIALOGOGUE - an agent which stimulates the secretion
SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES are monosaccharides and
disaccharides occurring naturally in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products.
Some examples of simple carbohydrates are: glucose, galactose, and fructose
(all of which are monosaccharides); and sucrose, lactose, and maltose (all of
which are disaccharides.)
Simple carbohydrates elevate blood sugar levels rapidly,
providing "instant energy" which is quickly utilized and dissipated.
Additionally, refined sources of simple carbohydrates, such as candy,
contribute only calories to the diet. These "empty calories" are often consumed
in place of foods which would provide important nutrients in addition to the
SITOSTEROL is a compound found in many plants. It is
commonly extracted from wheat germ oil, corn oil, and other grain or nut oils.
In the beta form, it has anticholesterolemic qualities.
SKELETON: What you have left when you take out a
persons insides and take off his outsides.
SKIN is the body's largest organ, making up about 10
percent of normal body weight. It protects the internal organs from the
environment. Its cells are continually being replaced as they are lost by wear
and tear. The turnover rate of these cells is three to four weeks. The skin
consists of a thin outer layer called the epidermis, and a thick inner layer
called the dermis. Beneath the dermis is the fatty subcutaneous layer that
helps to insulate the body and absorb shocks. A piece of skin the size of a
quarter has three feet of blood vessels, twelve feet of nerves, hundreds of
nerve endings, 100 sweat glands, 10 hair follicles, 15 sebaceous glands and
more than 3 million cells. The most important function of the skin is to
protect, acting as the main barrier between the environment and the internal
organs of the body, shielding them from injury, harmful rays of sunlight, and
invasion from infective agents such as bacteria. In addition to protection the
skin is also a sensory organ containing many cells that are sensitive to touch,
temperature, pain, pressure and itching. It also plays a role in keeping body
SPECIALIST: A doctor whose patients are expected to
confine their ailments to his office hours.
SPLEEN - The spleen, an organ of the lymphatic
system, varies in shape and size. It is located in the upper left of the
abdominal cavity, in contact with the diaphragm. The spleen removes debris from
the blood and breaks down aged red blood cells. A part of the broken-down red
blood cell is converted into bilirubin and transported to the liver. The spleen
can also act as a blood reservoir with a volume of 350 milliliters.
STACHYDRINE is an alkaloid found in many plants,
including alfalfa, citrus, and yarrow. It is toxic in large amounts.
STARCH is a polysaccharide made of glucose linked
together. The body must convert starch into glucose which can be utilized for
immediate energy or converted to glycogen and stored in the liver for later
energy needs. It exists throughout the vegetable kingdom, its chief commercial
sources being the cereals and potatoes.
STEARIC ACID is a saturated fatty acid found in
animal fats and some vegetable oils. It has many uses, including coating pills,
and is an ingredient in ointments and soaps.
STEROIDS comprise a group of compounds with four
interlocking carbon rings. Examples of steroids are bile acids, cholesterol,
and adrenal hormones. Synthetic steroids are available pharmaceutically; for
example, corticosteroid is a synthetically produced adrenal hormone, prescribed
for its anti-inflammatory properties. There are many possible side effects of
steroids, including poor wound healing and stomach irritation. Long-term use
can lead to glaucoma, cataracts, diabetes, think skin, and fragile bones. Any
steroid can cause masculinization and high dosages can cause Cushing's
STEROLS are a lipid-like subset of steroids. They
are found in almost every plant and animal. They include, or are related to,
cholesterol, certain vitamins, adrenal hormones, and saponins. Effects on the
body are similar to those of steroids.
STIGMASTEROLS are plant sterols found in cacao
butter and soybeans. They are important starting materials for the industrial
manufacture of synthetic hormones.
STIMULANT - an agent that temporarily increases
activity or physiological processes. Stimulants may be classified according to
the organ upon which they act; for example, an intestinal stimulant is that
which stimulates the intestines.
STOMACH - The stomach is a funnel-shaped organ
located under the diaphragm, between the liver and the spleen. The stomach is
made up of a number of tissue layers among which is a layer of muscle which
acts to move food around. The innermost layer is the mucous membrane, which
produces and secretes mucus, hydrochloric acid, and enzymes. The mucus is
constantly secreted from the walls of the stomach, thus protecting the stomach
from being digested by its own enzymes and acid. The acid kills bacteria which
can be mixed with the food. The enzymes secreted require a low pH to function,
and are responsible for the digestion of protein. The stomach also produces a
substance essential in the absorption of vitamin B-12 (intrinsic factor).
The food enters the stomach by passing through the
esophagus into the cardia. It then passes to the fundus, the upper portion of
the stomach, from where it passes out of the stomach through the pyloric
sphincter which opens to the duodenum. Food can stay in the stomach for long
periods of time. The time needed to digest the food depends on its particular
characteristics. Bread can be digested in two to three hours; sardines in oil
can take eight to nine hours.
STOMACHIC - a substance which excites, strengthens
and tones the stomach.
STROKES are one of the leading causes of death in the
U.S. Most strokes are the result of the brain cells being damaged in one of two
ways: brain cells do not receive enough blood because blood clots block the
flow, or excessive pressure from blood pooling in the brain tissue caused by
arteries bursting or leaking.
SUCROSE is a sweet crystalline dextrorotatory
non-reducing disaccharide that occurs naturally in most land plants and is the
simple carbohydrate obtained from sugarcane, sugar beet and other sources. It
is hydrolyzed in the intestine by sucrase to glucose and fructose.
SWERTIAMARIN is a xanthone found in centaury and